WKÖ Stabsabteilung Statistik. 1. Stand: Apr. Länderprofil CHINA. Allgemeine Informationen. Hauptstadt. Peking. Währung. Renminbi Yuan (CNY). h. Publikationen. Impressum. 2. DAAD-BILDUNGSSYSTEMANALYSE | China .. Nach Angaben des Bundesamtes für Statistik stellen chinesische . Bildung und Forschung WBF. Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft SECO. Bilaterale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen. Asien/Ozeanien. LÄNDERINFORMATIONEN. VR CHINA. Arbeitslosenquote in Deutschland - Jahresdurchschnittswerte bis Sie haben noch Fragen? Wir setzen auf dieser Website Cookies ein. Eine geringe Kartoffelernte führte bereits zu einem erheblichen Preisanstieg. Werte wurden zum besseren Verständnis der Statistik gerundet. Doing Business China Umsatz der führenden Drogeriemarktketten in Deutschland. China steht auf Platz eins der Rangliste der Länder mit der geringsten Internetfreiheit Auflage der überregionalen Tageszeitungen im 2. Bevölkerungsentwicklung von bis gegenüber dem Vorjahr Europäische Union: Davon entfielen mit Die Urbanisierung in China nimmt stark zu: Quellenangaben anzeigen Veröffentlichungsangaben anzeigen Veröffentlichungsdatum April Dabei nimmt Chinas wirtschaftliche Bedeutung rapide zu:
In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea , there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains , while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.
Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.
Other major rivers include the Xi , Mekong , Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.
The world's highest point, Mount Everest 8,m , lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons , which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.
In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.
A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts , particularly the Gobi Desert. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.
China is one of 17 megadiverse countries ,  lying in two of the world's major ecozones: By one measure, China has over 34, species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.
China is home to at least species of mammals the third-highest such number in the world ,  1, species of birds eighth ,  species of reptiles seventh  and species of amphibians seventh.
At least animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.
China has over 32, species of vascular plants,  and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear , along with over bird species.
In higher montane stands of juniper and yew , the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as , species of flora.
In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. In China, heavy metals also cause environmental pollution.
Heavy metal pollution is an inorganic chemical hazard, which is mainly caused by lead Pb , chromium Cr , arsenic As , cadmium Cd , mercury Hg , zinc Zn , copper Cu , cobalt Co , and nickel Ni.
Heavy metal pollutants mainly come from mining, sewage irrigation, the manufacturing of metal-containing products, and other related production activities.
High level of heavy metal exposure can also cause permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities, including reading and learning disabilities, behavioral problems, hearing loss, attention problems, and disruption in the development of visual and motor function.
According to the data of a national census of pollution, China has more than 1. The total volume of discharged heavy metals in the waste water, waste gas and solid wastes are around , tons each year from — The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area  after Russia , and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.
China's constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism.
The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist ,  with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet , freedom of the press , freedom of assembly , the right to have children , free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.
The President is the titular head of state , elected by the National People's Congress. The Premier is the head of government , presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions.
There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.
Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and government corruption. The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , each with a designated minority group; four municipalities ; and two special administrative regions SARs which enjoy a degree of political autonomy.
These 31 provincial-level divisions can be collectively referred to as " mainland China ", a term which usually excludes two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.
The PRC has diplomatic relations with countries and maintains embassies in Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition.
Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.
Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan,  especially in the matter of armament sales.
Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai 's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.
In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours.
In , the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" PNTR with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.
China has the second biggest economy in the world. According to Bloomberg News , China is planning to reduce the average tariff rate on imports from its trading partners by October In July , China had also cut import tariffs on approximately 1, consumer products so as to open up the economy of the country.
Ever since its establishment after the second Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ROC , a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory.
These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations , with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.
In addition to Taiwan, China is also involved in other international territorial disputes. Since the s, China has been involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, including a disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan.
China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.
China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower , with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century.
The Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform.
While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the s, political freedom is still tightly restricted.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights.
However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state. Rural migrants to China's cities often find themselves treated as second-class citizens by the hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits.
A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies and NGOs also routinely criticize China's human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions ,  forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights,   and excessive use of the death penalty.
Falun Gong was first taught publicly in In , when there were 70 million practitioners,  the persecution of Falun Gong began, resulting in mass arrests, extralegal detention, and reports of torture and deaths in custody.
The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the right to subsistence and economic development is a prerequisite to other types of human rights, and that the notion of human rights should take into account a country's present level of economic development.
According to the Global Slavery Index, an estimated 3,, people are enslaved in modern-day China, or 0. Prisoners are not paid at all, and need their families to send money to them.
Prisoners who refuse to work are beaten, and some are beaten to death. Many of the prisoners are political or religious dissidents, and some are recognized internationally as prisoners of conscience.
Laogai in Chinese means forced labour and reform. A Chinese president said that they want to see two products coming out of the prisons: Harry Wu, himself a former prisoner of the Laogai, filmed undercover footage of the Laogai, and was charged with stealing state secrets.
For this, Harry Wu was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but only served 66 days before being deported to the United States.
Office of the Secretary of Defense — argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.
As a recognized nuclear weapons state, China is considered both a major regional military power and a potential military superpower.
China has made significant progress in modernising its air force in recent decades, purchasing Russian fighter jets such as the Sukhoi Su , and also manufacturing its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J , J and the Shenyang J , J , J , and J In August , China tested its first hypersonic flight.
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.
The number of billionaires increased in China from to From its founding in until late , the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy.
Following Mao's death in and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule.
Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones SEZs.
Inefficient state-owned enterprises SOEs were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.
Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership,  and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.
Since economic liberalization began in , China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies,  relying largely on investment- and export-led growth.
Between and , China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined. In recent years, government claimed growth numbers have come under increased scrutiny, with both non-Chinese financial and economic observes as well as Chinese government officials claiming the government has been inflating its economic output.
In the online realm, China's e-commerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around onwards.
China ranked 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index in ,  although it is only ranked th among the countries measured in the Index of Economic Freedom.
Following the global financial crisis, China realized the dependency on the US Dollar and the weakness of the international monetary system.
China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions , such as papermaking , printing , the compass , and gunpowder the Four Great Inventions , became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe.
Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.
After the Communists came to power in , efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union , in which scientific research was part of central planning.
China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering ; in , China graduated over 10, Ph.
The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride. In , China's first space station module, Tiangong-1 , was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early s.
China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February By , China hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential than the U.
China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million.
China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou , which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in ,  and is planned to offer global coverage by Since the late s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways.
By October , there were 81 such bridges and tunnels. China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production.
Auto sales in exceeded China's railways , which are state-owned , are among the busiest in the world , handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.
China's high-speed rail HSR system started construction in the early s. Today it has over 19, kilometers 11, miles of dedicated lines alone, a length that exceeds rest of the world's high-speed rail tracks combined,  making it the longest HSR network in the world.
Since , the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. There were approximately airports in with around planned by More than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in were in China,  and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1, in to 5, in In , Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic it was 26th in Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.
The national census of recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,,, Although a middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since In , the urban unemployment rate of China was about 4.
Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the s, and, in , began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family.
Beginning in the mid s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.
The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December , allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child.
According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth  or the size of the total population. Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than million births between and , a number which may reach one billion by given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.
The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese , who constitute about There are as many as living languages in China.
Across northeastern and northwestern China , local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu , Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea.
Sarikoli , the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang , is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines , including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.
Standard Mandarin , a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect , is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.
Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing.
In , the government introduced simplified characters , which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China.
Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script.
Uyghur is most commonly written in Persian alphabet based Uyghur Arabic alphabet. The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet.
Zhuang uses both an official Latin alphabet script and a traditional Chinese character script. China has urbanized significantly in recent decades.
China has over cities with a population of over one million,  including the seven megacities cities with a population of over 10 million of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.
The large " floating populations " of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;  the figures below include only long-term residents.
Since , compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school , which together last for nine years. In , 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.
In February , the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. In , around The National Health and Family Planning Commission , together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.
At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign , which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases.
Diseases such as cholera , typhoid and scarlet fever , which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign.
After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in , the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly because of better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes.
Healthcare in China became mostly privatized , and experienced a significant rise in quality. As of [update] , the average life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years,  and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.
Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution.
Religious affairs and issues in the country are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements.
The " three teachings ", including Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism Chinese Buddhism , historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture,   enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harkens back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty.
China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues , including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan. Clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions on "religion" and the unorganized, diffusive nature of Chinese religious traditions.
Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions, Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice.
Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui people , also of Uyghur , Kazakh , Kyrgyz and other peoples in the Northwest China.
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations , which have their origins in the Han dynasty.
Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals.
They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism , and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.
Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism ".
Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera ,  were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.
Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted. Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society.
With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,   and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.
Chinese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the forking ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and realism respectively.
In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese literature embarked on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for ordinary citizens.
Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. Mo Yan , a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety, in which the most influential are known as the "Eight Major Cuisines", including Sichuan , Cantonese , Jiangsu , Shandong , Fujian , Hunan , Anhui , and Zhejiang cuisines.
The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions.
And the bean products, such as tofu and soy milk , remain as a popular source of protein. Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China.
Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food , have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.
China has become a prime sports destination worldwide. China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world.
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practiced,  and commercial gyms and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the country.
China has participated in the Olympic Games since , although it has only participated as the PRC since China hosted the Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals — the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.
Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province will also collaboratively host the Olympic Winter Games , which will make Beijing the first city in the world to hold both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the People's Republic of China. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan.
For other uses, see China disambiguation. For other uses, see PRC disambiguation. State in East Asia. Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Mongolian Uyghur Tibetan Zhuang various others . History of China and Timeline of Chinese history. Dynasties in Chinese history.
Republic of China — History of the People's Republic of China. Environmental issues in China. Water resources of China and Energy policy of China.
List of current Chinese provincial leaders. Foreign relations of China. Military history of China before and People's Liberation Army.
Economic history of China —present. Income inequality in China. Internationalization of the renminbi. Science and technology in China , Chinese space program , List of Chinese discoveries , and List of Chinese inventions.
Water supply and sanitation in China. Languages of China and List of endangered languages in China. Pharmaceutical industry in China. Chinese culture and Culture of the People's Republic of China.
Sport in China and China at the Olympics. China portal Asia portal. General Secretary of the Communist Party of China de facto paramount leader , President of the People's Republic of China de jure head of state , and Chairman of the Central Military Commission Commander-in-chief for both state and party.
See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information. O Grande Reino da China Even those texts that did survive had to be painstakingly reconstructed from memory, luck, or forgery.
Mei Ze 's "rediscovered" edition of the Book of Documents was only shown to be a forgery in the Qing dynasty.
The area under Pakistani administration is claimed by India, while the area under Indian administration is claimed by Pakistan.
Tsui ,  Charles K. Kao ,  Yuan T. Eurasian Geography and Economics. Archived from the original PDF on 15 January Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 21 June For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect and the standardized Chinese characters.
Retrieved 8 February Xi Jinping elected to lead China". Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 16 April Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 16 November Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 10 September National Bureau of Statistics of China.
Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 20 January Taking the per capita disposable income of nationwide households by income quintiles, that of the low-income group reached 5, yuan, the lower-middle-income group 11, yuan, the middle-income group 19, yuan, the upper-middle-income group 29, yuan, and the high-income group 54, yuan.
The Gini Coefficient for national income in was 0. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 September Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture.
Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 15 February US Secretary of Defense. Retrieved 25 June Deciphering China's latest defence budget figures". Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 9 February Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Retrieved 17 January What kind of superpower could China be? Retrieved 21 October II , London, p. Boston and New York: Sino-Platonic Papers , No. Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe, eds.
The Cambridge History of China: T'oung Pao, Second Series. Cathay and the Way Thither. Harvard University Asia Center, p. Guo, Sujian; Guo, Baogang, eds.
Greater China in an Era of Globalization. Life in ancient China. Archaeological Institute of America.
Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 14 October Mattos and Jerry Norman. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 11 July Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization.
City University of HK Press. The History of China. Autumn, , pp. In Schellinger, Paul E. International Dictionary of Historic Places: The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics.
Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I , p. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. The Early Chinese Empires: China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st century ".
World Bank Publications via Eric. Retrieved 22 October Journeys from Past to Present — Volume 1: From Human Origins to CE. Imperial Chinese Military History.
A new history of Korea. Medieval Chinese warfare, — The Rise of the East in World History. Cambridge University Press, pp.
Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 15 August Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 2 September A Short History of the World. Volume 10, Part 1, by John K. Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching.
Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 3 July University of Hawaii Press. A Guide to a Century of Change. China in War and Revolution, — The Chinese Revolution in the s: Between Triumph and Disaster.
Government and Politics in Kuomintang China, — Volume Reconsidering the Prospects for a Democratic China. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic.
The End of the War Against Japan". Retrieved 14 July International Military Tribunal for the Far East". Conventional War Crimes Atrocities.
Retrieved 4 February Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, — Yearbook of the United Nations — Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 20 June FDR and the Creation of the U.
Constitutional Reform and the Future of the Republic of China. Retrieved 20 July University of Southern California. Archived from the original PDF on 16 October Communism in History and Theory.
Retrieved 3 October Students and teachers of the new China: Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 30 October Taiwan in a Time of Transition.
Market Reforms and Class Struggle". The National Bureau of Asian Research. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 10 July The New York Times.
The Tank Man transcript". Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 15 November Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 19 July E-commerce transactions amounted to 2 trillion yuan about billion U.
Hu said online music and news are the most popular types of web content in China, and instant communication services, video streaming, search engines and online games also ranked high on the popularity list.
This figure is Zhou called on local governments to step up work safety supervision and inspections to prevent severe accidents from happening especially in some accident-prone sectors as the traditional Spring Festival is approaching in February.
In a similar development, the country's safety watchdog publicized temporary provisions on uncovering hidden dangers in the workplace on Thursday, another effort to improve the country's work safety conditions.
The provisions, which would take effect on February 1, , stipulated that any person or unit could report directly to the safety watchdog on spotting potential dangers in the workplace in a timely manner.
Zhou added that the country had closed 11, small coal mines in the last five years and invested more than 83 billion yuan The country hosted Domestic and outbound travelers surpassed 1.
The international tourism income reached Domestic tourism income reached The international inbound market maintained fast momentum last year.
Tourists from other Asian countries took up Republic of Korea continued to be the first on the list of nations.
By the end of , the country had 13, star hotels, up 6. China has TV channels Foreigners in China A total of , foreigners were living on the Chinese mainland by the end of , according to data from the sixth national census, which was released by the National Bureau of Statistics in April Health and Related Statistics Total number of induced abortions in China: More than one quarter of China's population about million adults smoke, and tobacco kills one million Chinese people every year.
Sydney Morning Herald By the end of , total number of China Internet users reached million, a 73 million increase over the year of China's Internet Users is million, which is outnumber U.
Population by end of June Total online advertising in China is expected to reach Online shopping in China topped China's online sales to top 51 bln yuan in China now has 97 million broadband users.
Media Total number of journalists in China: Products and Export China accounts for 95 percent of global output of rare earths, 17 chemically similar metals used in hybrid cars and wind turbines.
Smoking Polulation According to statistics, smoking population in China is million. Among them, Chinese male accounts for Around 1 million people dead for smoking and second hand smoking death number is over , everyear.
By the end of , China had million fixed-line subscribers and million mobile subscribers m Mobile phone users China's 3G users hit 9.
China Development Statistics China has more newspapers and magazines There are ten times as many Chinese newspapers and magazines than there were 30 years ago.
That's when the country adopted the reform and opening-up policy. Today, the country has 2, newspapers and 9, different magazines.
In the meantime, official figures show China has some publishing houses producing nearly , kinds of books.
That's a dramatic increase from the publishers of the past that produced only 10, different books. Rapid economic development and universal education since China adopted the reform has helped fuel the need for more information sources.
Under the market economy, hundreds of publishing houses and newspapers have taken steps to restructure management systems into corporations listed on the stock market.
The legal system overseeing the news and publishing sectors in China has also changed over the last three decades. Since a law and five relevant regulations were adopted in to govern the sectors.
Since it started in , digital publishing has flourished. Its industrial volume amounted to 20 billion yuan 2. More than , kinds of digital books were produced last year alone in China, which is more than any other country in the world.
Department heads and general-managers make up 77 percent of the total and year olds account for 70 percent. Managers born in s are becoming the backbone of the group.
Their average annual earnings were , yuan in , up The executive class, it seems, are media junkies, with The survey found that 69 percent of executives have favorite brand products that they are reluctant to change.
The number owning a car rose 10 percent to 47 percent; 65 percent say they consider safety features when deciding what car to buy, while 50 percent pay attention to fuel consumption and emissions.
Many felt under pressure, with 47 percent complaining of high workloads and 41 percent fretting over personal responsibilities.
But 72 percent of executives say they are satisfied with their present jobs and lifestyle. Executives were defined as entrepreneurs, department heads and managers responsible for at least 50 staff.
By Jessica Zhang China. China's online advertising market near 11 bln yuan. The surge was largely driven by a boom in search engine advertising, or keyword advertising, which experienced an annual growth rate of Search engine advertising accounted for Online brand advertising jumped Advertising embedded in games, software and video clips would also become the major driving forces for online advertising, it said.
The firm forecast that China's online advertising market would hit China had million Internet users at the end of , the world's second largest online population and only five million fewer than the United States, according to the China Internet Network Information Center.
However, the United States reported more than Online shopping nearly doubled in China in Fifty-five million of China's million Internet users shopped online last year, the Xinhua news agency said, citing a report by China Internet Research Centre and taobao.
The report released this year forecast online sales, which now account for less than one percent of China's total retail sales, would make up five to eight percent of total retail sales by China's customs revenue in hits record high China's customs revenue reached a record The customs revenue increased partly because of the increase of imports, which were up The customs revenue from telecommunication equipment, integrated circuits, television receivers and printing machines rose considerably due to the increase in imports of these products, the administration said.
More imports of high-end cars and SUVs, and rising prices of imported staple goods such as copper, nickel and other metals also contributed to the revenue rise, it explained.
The higher export tariffs on some goods, which were aimed at curbing exports and balancing foreign trade, had also increased customs revenues by about 20 billion yuan, it said.
China's technology trade exceeds trillion yuan People's Daily Nov. Enterprises became the biggest buyers and sellers in the market with their technological output and purchase accounting for 56 and 75 per cent of the total market trade amount respectively.
Click for full report. Click for full article Nov. China Tourism Trade with Canada in China Economic Development Data. China's urban fixed assets investment up China Jan-Feb power consumption up More than 89, killed on China's roads in Xinhua, Jan.
The 38 major traffic accidents - accidents with more than ten fatalities each - resulted in deaths, dropping It was the lowest number of major accidents since , he said.
According to an analytical report, about million violations of traffic rules by drivers last year led to more than 76, deaths, down 16 percent, among which the death toll from speeding, fatigue and drunk driving went down 24 percent from the previous year.
China to be world's third largest auto-manufacturer Dec. Since , China's annual auto output has tripled and the nation has gone from being the fifth largest car manufacturer in the world in to the fourth largest in Over the last five years, China has fulfilled its commitments to the WTO by adopting a series of measure to further open its auto industry.
In the first 11 months of this year, China produced 6. China is expected to sell 6. The Xinhua News Agency reported.
Inbound and outbound tourism as well as the domestic tourism all heated up during the week-long holiday. Hong Kong and Macao were the hottest travel destinations for outbound Chinese travelers.
New travel patterns, such as traveling in rural areas, leisure travel and self-guided tours also emerged as favorite methods for tourists.
The total volume of retail holiday sales reached billion yuan or some 42 billion US dollars, an increase of 15 percent over the same period in But fears that the rapid economic growth will drive interest rates higher weighed on the stock markets yesterday.
Data showing inflation rising to 3. Stocks fell nearly 5 percent in Shanghai as a delay to the data release fueled fears of an even stronger number.
Statistical review of They present a picture of better days, with lower energy consumption and higher economic growth and performance, a larger grain output and funds for scientific and technological research, as well as an increase in farmers' income and overall employment.
China's GDP grows The consumer price index, a key indicator of inflation, inched up by a mild 1. The numbers of accidents were down Speeding was the main cause of the motor vehicle accidents, accounting for Statistics Xinhua News, Jan.
Preliminary estimates show that gross domestic product GDP for the year stood at The rate was marginally lower than theWie Sie dem Web-Tracking widersprechen können sowie weitere Informationen dazu finden Sie in unserer Datenschutzerklärung. China Construction Bank - Annual Report. Die Arbeitslosenquote in China beträgt seit Jahren rund 4 Prozent. Statista liefert nun Brancheneinblicke aus globaler Sicht für 34 Wirtschaftszweige. Toplisten Unternehmen identifizieren für Vertrieb smily mit zunge Analyse. Investitionen von China in den wichtigsten Industrie- und Schwellenländern bis Haben Sie Fragen zu unseren Unternehmenslösungen? Zugriff White Rabbit Slots - Play Now for Free or Real Money auf Basis-Statistiken. Weitere Umfragen zur Wahlentscheidung sowie zur Zufriedenheit mit Landesregierung und einzelnen Politikern bündelt das Dossier Landtagswahlen in Bayern. Statista liefert nun Brancheneinblicke aus globaler Sicht für 34 Wirtschaftszweige.